A Way that Seemeth Right
There is a way that seemeth right unto a man,
but the end thereof are the ways of death. (Prov. 16:25.)
No matter how personable and well-meaning a Christian therapist may be, he/she has been heavily influenced by an ungodly psychological perspective. Psychology thus becomes the tempting means for both interpreting Scripture and applying it to daily living. When people read the Bible from the psychological perspective of Freud, Jung, Adler, Maslow, Rogers, et al, they tend to conform the Bible to those theories and methods. Rather than looking at life through the lens of the Bible, they tend to look at the Bible through the lens of psychology.
Amalgamators, those who integrate psychology and the Bible, add the wisdom of men to fill in what they think is missing from the Bible. They take an age-old problem, give it a new name, such as “midlife crisis,” and give solutions from the leavened loaf. They integrate psychological ideas with a Bible verse or story here and there to come up with what they believe to be effective solutions to problems they think are beyond the reach of Scripture.
One human problem after another is confronted with an integrated approach. This conveys the idea that one is getting the best of both worlds, and underneath this is the not-so-subtle idea that the Bible is insufficient and must be propped up by a strong psychology. Psychological counselors decide which of the almost 500 often-contradictory psychological approaches and which of the thousands of not-always-compatible techniques they will integrate with the Bible. Does anyone notice the contradictions in all of these integrations?
Even Christian psychologists chase one trendy idea after another, just like Don Quixote pursuing the parade of tilting windmills. Sigmund Freud is not quite as popular among Christians as Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow are now. As Eric Berne became less popular, Alfred Ellis gained in popularity among Christian therapists. It all depends on which ideas and methods are in vogue and how well they are couched in Christian terminology. The church pursues both blindly and eagerly the psychological purveyors of perverse and unproven ideas and opinions with the same kind of loyalty and naiveté as Don Quixote’s servant Sancho.
Christians have given significant concerns of life over to the ever-bulging ranks of professionalism. C. P. Dragash complains that “The 20th century has seen the professionals take over from families and communities many of their ancient responsibilities.” He refers to the high price paid as “the loss of autonomy in families and the decay of community identity and responsibility.” This is not simply a secular problem. Christians are included in the ranks. The most repeated advice among Christians for problems of living is “get some counseling,” and by this they mean professional psychological counseling.
The “loss of autonomy,” “decay of community identity,” and loss of responsibility have gone so far that professional help is now considered necessary for problems that used to be solved by common sense and caring friends and family. A Newsweek article states, “Sometimes even the obvious solution requires the blessing of a therapist.” In other words, people are now paying professionals to tell them what common sense would dictate. While training and licensing are unnecessary to dispense obvious solutions to sometimes simple problems, loss of individual responsibility and confidence has necessitated it. However, it is the loss of responsibility and confidence fostered by the therapists themselves, and now therapy is necessary to encourage individuals to do what common sense would have caused them to do in the past. One sees this psychological mentality in a great variety of places and the examples one could give are pandemic.
Psychological therapy has thus encouraged the very problems it claims to cure. It has fostered dependence on the professional and it has given psychological excuses for people not to take responsibility for their own decisions and actions. People have inadvertently been robbed of dignity and personal responsibility in the name of therapy. Perhaps we could add some new “mental illnesses” to the expanding list: such as the disease of psychotherapeutic mentality, the disease of dependence on therapists, the disease of shifting responsibility onto professionals, and the disease of psychotherapy. As someone once said, “Psychotherapy is the disease of which it pretends to be the cure.”
The cancer of psychotherapy has not only hit the Church, but it has metastasized to its members. More and more Christians are looking to psychologists as though they are the sages of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Psychologists have taken the position of priests and replaced the pastors as “experts” in matters pertaining to life. Freud and Jung et al speak for us instead of the apostles and prophets. Psychotherapists have thus attained the level of adoration, mystery, and divine regard once accorded to the clergy. They have even become idols, because they supposedly hold the keys to mental health and understand all the mental mysteries of life.
Psychotherapist Dr. Loriene Chase concedes that pastors can deal with “ecclesiastical confusion and can assist in the maturation of your spiritual belief systems as well as offering a workable and compatible philosophy in your search for inner harmony.” But, according to Chase, the pastor without psychotherapeutic training should be limited to those matters. Chase, like many psychologists, does not see the Bible as the authoritative Word about all matters of the human heart, soul, mind, and behavior. Yet her advice is almost identical to Christians who have made psychology their standard and guide for values, attitudes, emotions, thoughts, actions, and relationships. If the Bible does not speak to the crucial issues of life and if Jesus has not come to indwell and transform believers, then we are to be pitied. The psychological answers do not give life. They merely manipulate according to the whim of the human heart and the bias of the therapist.
Mary VanderGoot, while a professor of psychology at a Christian college, listed a litany of reasons why preachers should not minister to individuals with “deeply-rooted, life-crippling psychological problems.” Her bias was obviously psychological. She listed reasons why pastors should not counsel, such as their lack of psychological training, qualifications, and experience; they do not usually charge a fee and they do not set prescribed time limits on appointments. Furthermore, she feared that if pastors counsel they risk church unity.
By the end of the article VanderGoot makes it sufficiently clear that no self-respecting minister who is ethical and logical would counsel because of the incompatibility of the roles of pastor and therapist. Evidently the biblical answers to life’s problems and complexities are only appropriate on Sunday mornings; psychological ideas are the fare for the rest of the week. Thus, VanderGoot recommends: “The pastor should be taught how to assemble a list of professionals in his community who will serve his parishioners well.”
The early church survived without psychotherapists. Throughout the centuries Christians found victory in Jesus without the help of recently arrived, modern-day psychotherapists. Pastors ministered to the problems of living through preaching, teaching, and ministering the Word of God. However, today psychological ideas about life and how to live happily and successfully have replaced and/or supplemented the age-old truths by which the saints through the ages have lived and glorified God. If pastors have not been trained in those psychological ideas and methods, they are no longer considered able to minister to the most crucial challenges of life. Psychologists have placed themselves beyond reproach, because unless a person is trained in the theories and methods of psychology he supposedly doesn’t know what he is talking about, especially if he questions the psychological way.
Contrary to the general, acceptable, cultural view, psychotherapy is riddled with myths. Psychiatrist Garth Wood, in his book The Myth Of Neurosis, describes the bankruptcy of psychotherapists:
Cowed by their status as men of science, deferring to their academic titles, bewitched by the initials after their names, we, the gullible, lap up their pretentious nonsense as if it were the gospel truth. We must learn to recognize them for what they are—possessors of no special knowledge of the human psyche, who have nonetheless, chosen to earn their living from the dissemination of the myth that they do indeed know how the mind works, are thoroughly conversant with the “rules” that govern human behavior.
Wood is not cowed by the sacred cow of psychotherapy. He says, “Freudian theories, and their offspring, are irrelevant where they are not actually dangerous.”
Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz says:
Perhaps most, so-called psychotherapeutic procedures are harmful for the so-called patients…all such interventions and proposals should therefore be regarded as evil until they are proven otherwise.
In spite of the research, psychological counselors continually spread rumors about persons being harmed by pastoral or other biblical ministry. One wonders if they are acquainted with the research about people being harmed by psychological counseling. There are numerous horror stories hidden away in psychotherapy closets related to misdiagnosis, maltreatment, and other failures.
Dr. Archibald Hart, Emeritus, Department of Clinical Psychology at Fuller Seminary, illustrates his concern by listing a host of problems associated with pastors as counselors. And of course, most of those reasons evaporate if the pastor is psychologically trained. Hart says, “When people sit in the pew, they want to know truth. When they sit in the counseling room, they want to be understood.” And yet, in Jesus there is both grace and truth. The Bible does not separate truth from love. Who understands better than God? And what does Hart mean when he says “understood”? Does a psychologically trained individual understand people any better than anyone else? There is no evidence that he does. Professional therapists have even been notoriously poor at diagnosis.
Hart expresses his ideas about counseling and counseling relationships as if his statements were scientific and based upon research, when, in fact, he is espousing only his own personal opinion. For example, he says, “The most important way we have for understanding the self is through the exploration of feelings” Not only does the Bible not support that statement; one can easily find a great number of professionals, including Christian psychologists, who would deny this. Nevertheless, Hart’s personal point of view is printed as if it were a scientific gospel.
In addition, Hart promotes the work of Carl Rogers by saying, “Carl Rogers has identified and articulated, perhaps better than any other theoretician, the essential qualities of a good human interaction.”  (Bold added.) Evidently it does not matter that Carl Rogers is a humanistic psychologist who has espoused secular humanism and spiritism and even consulted the Ouija Board and been involved in necromancy.
In spite of his questionable involvements and unbiblical ideas and practices, Rogers is emulated by many who call themselves “Christian psychologists.” In addition to his first-place ranking with secular therapists, Rogers was rated in first place in a ranking survey of CAPS (Christian Association for Psychological Studies) in reference to influence in counseling practices. One could excuse this ignorance on the part of Christian psychologists, except that Carl Rogers, while having departed severely from his early Christian background, has erected a system that is a pale imitation of what one could more richly find in Scripture. For example, Carl Rogers’s crowning discovery is that of love. Why would anyone need to ask Carl Rogers about love? In his description of the man of the future, he writes:
The man of the future…will be living his transient life mostly in temporary relationships… he must be able to establish closeness quickly. He must be able to leave these close relationships behind without excessive conflict or mourning.
What does this say about commitment of relationship in love between persons? Furthermore, a secular humanist knows nothing about the love of God which passes understanding. And the kind of love that is Christian has no counterpart or parallel in humanistic psychology.
Why Christians need to find out about love from Carl Rogers boggles the mind. Love is a constant theme of Scripture. God is love. Jesus loves. The Bible teaches love. How could anyone miss it? It is heartbreaking to hear Christian psychologists say that they did not know about love until they read Rogers. One wonders if they could truly know Jesus or the love of God, since Rogers’s brand of love is limited to the self-serving carnal flesh.
Could it be that Christian psychologists spend so much time reading psychological texts and so little time reading the Bible that they do not see love in Scripture? Have they so spiritualized the Bible that they do not see the practicality of God’s love and Christ’s Words about love? Do they not realize the power of the Gospel of Christ to deal with all problems of living?
Hart ends his comments by saying, “As a general rule, whenever possible, get some therapy yourself— not necessarily because you have problems, but to develop a greater self-understanding.” This would not have been the advice of the saints throughout the centuries. They would have said, “Know God.” It is Socrates rather than the Bible that declared that we should know ourselves. The Bible constantly encourages us to know God. Paul prayed for the Christians:
That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him: The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of his power to usward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power. (Eph. 1:17-19.)
The only kind of self-understanding Christians must come to is that which follows knowing God. And that is the kind Job came to when he encountered the Living God.
Then Job answered the LORD, and said, I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee…. I uttered that I understood not; things too wonderful for me, which I knew not…. I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee. Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes. (Job 42:1-3, 5-6.)
The Bible teaches that we are transformed into the image of Christ not by looking at ourselves or at our feelings, but rather by looking at Him.
But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord. (2 Cor. 3:18.)
Can you imagine the apostle Paul seeking self-understanding through exploring his feelings?
But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ. (Philip. 3:7-8.)
There are some very basic differences between the psychological ideas invading the church and the doctrines of Scripture, both in direction and emphasis. The psychological way often seeks to enhance the self, through self-love, self-realization, self-esteem, self-actualization, self-understanding, and other selfisms. The Bible teaches loving God and neighbor and the application of the cross to the self so that believers may confidently say with Paul:
I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me. (Gal. 2:20.)
In contrast to the fears of VanderGoot and Hart, Bernie Zilbergeld, who does not even profess the Christian faith, suspects that even lay people (regardless of their religious persuasion) do a good job of counseling. He admits that if professional therapists were pitted against lay therapists and research done on the results, “I would worry until the results were in,” as far as the survival of his own profession is concerned. Besides noting the research that does not support the use of professionally trained therapists, Zilbergeld says:
If counseling does indeed produce great changes, the results should be easy to observe in therapists, for they have received more therapy than any other group of people and they have also had extensive training in methods of personal change, methods they could personally use on themselves.
If therapy is all that it is supposed to be, the lives of therapists should advertise its benefits. However, the lives of therapists do not support the claims made by them for their psychological surgery. There is no book that surpasses the Bible in giving an accurate understanding of the human condition. There is no one else who can transform a life like Jesus can. He has given believers His Word and His Holy Spirit and He has chosen to minister through His people in such a way that the glory goes to the Father.
For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake. For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellency of the power may be of God, and not of us. (2 Cor. 4:5-7.)
SUBVERTING THE FAITH
The antagonism towards Christianity subtly seeps through psychological ideas about why people are the way they are, how they should live, what they need, and how they change. Such ideas, promoted by Christians who believe and promote the psychological way, actually subvert the claims of Christ. Rather than denying the claims of Christ directly, they simply place Him alongside their favorite psychological theorists. Instead of denying the validity of the Word of God, they merely say that ministers of the Word are not qualified to minister to the deep levels of human need.
Psychological counselors undermine the ministering of pastors and have developed a formula for referral: (1) Anyone who is not psychologically trained is not qualified to counsel those people with the really serious problems of living. (2) Refer them to professional trained therapists. This is one predictable and pathetic pattern of the psychological seduction of Christianity.
Pastors have been intimidated by the warnings from psychologists. They have become fearful of doing the very thing God has called them to do: to minister to the spiritual needs of the people through godly counsel both in and out of the pulpit. Some of that intimidation has come from psychologically trained pastors. A spokesman for the American Association of Pastoral Counselors, a psychotherapeutically trained group of pastors, says “Our concern is that there are a lot of ministers who aren’t trained to handle their parishioners’ psychotherapy.” And of course, if the pastors are not trained they are not considered qualified. Therefore, the predictable benediction to the litany is: “refer to a professional.”
And, just as referral is the offering to the parishioner, it is the so-called answer for the missionary who needs rehabilitation. An article in a conservative Christian magazine recommends the possibility of sending missionaries away from a church to a treatment center “which specializes in missionary restoration.” In checking the staff of this restoration-for-missionaries center, we found—you guessed it—professional psychotherapists.
Can you imagine Paul turning to the ideas of men after his first missionary journey, after he had been persecuted and nearly stoned to death? Paul refused to put any confidence in the flesh. Without ever turning again to the philosophies of men and without the benefit of modern-day psychology, Paul rejoiced in the knowledge of Jesus Christ and the great privilege to serve Him and suffer for Him.
The number of examples of the referral formula is endless. It would be repetitious and eventually boring to continue adding examples. Everyone knows that the church has become one gigantic referral system. One pastor rightly challenges other pastors by saying:
We pastors have, like the rest of society, forgotten who we are and what we do. We are ministers of the Word. As such, everything we do, including counseling, is to be guided by the Word.
We have confused ourselves with secular counselors and psychologists. We have different goals! Their goal is to see the counselee restored to normalcy as recognized by society. Our goal is to see the counselee restored to a right relationship with God, and then, as a result of that restoration, to see him live as a child of God.
This pastor also says, “Pastors either ‘farm out’ counseling situations to ‘professional counselors’ or use secular counseling methods themselves.” Then he asks a very important question: “How can we expect our people to see the relevance of God’s Word on Sunday morning if we use a different standard during the week?” This type of spiritual schizophrenia elevates the psychological over the theological and therapy over sanctification.
Conservative members of world religions generally do not seek answers to life’s problems outside of their faith. Instead, they would look to their families and religious leaders for counsel. Yet, conservative Christians now seek answers from psychotherapists. That this is true is seen in the previous writers quoted as well as others. In a well-known Christian newsletter on cults, a professor of psychology from the University of California in Berkeley, who obviously has excellent academic credentials, was interviewed. She was given center stage in the publication and spoke as an authority in the field of cults.27 The trouble is that this psychologist, who is a non-Christian, advocated psychology while explaining some helpful information about cults. All in all, while this article had some valuable observations, psychology came out ahead and Christianity was left behind.
THEOLOGY OR PSYCHOLOGY?
In the past fifty years there really has been a gradual but dramatic shift from a conservative to a liberal view of the Scriptures in the church—from a theology of life to a psychology of life. Pastor Ben Patterson admits, “But of late, we evangelicals have out-liberaled the liberals with our self-help books, positive thinking preaching, and success gospels.” The psychological way is not limited to the counselor’s office; it greatly influences the way Christians think and talk. Psychological ideas are interspersed with Scripture. In most cases those Scriptures that would directly oppose the popular psychological ideas are either forgotten or reinterpreted.
It is obvious that the morals of society and the biblical standards of the church have been strongly influenced by psychology and that much of the moral decay and outright rebellion are directly attributable to the psychological way. This can even more strongly be said of psychological counseling and psychological ideas about mankind. And, as the church has become psychologized, its standards have been compromised.
Professor William Kirk Kilpatrick aptly describes the situation he experienced:
The point I wish to make here is that religion and psychology had become nearly indistinguishable for me. Freud and the church fathers, faith in God and faith in human potential, revelation and self-revelation all slid together in an easy companionship. As for God, He began to take shape in my mind along the lines of a friendly counselor of the nondirective school. I never balked at doing His will. His will always coincided with my own.
Later Kilpatrick says:
It sometimes seems that there is a direct ratio between the increasing number of helpers and the increasing number of those who need help. The more psychologists we have, the more mental illness we get; the more social workers and probation officers, the more crime; the more teachers, the more ignorance.
One has to wonder at it all. In plain language, it is suspicious. We are forced to entertain the possibility that psychology and related professions are proposing to solve problems that they themselves have helped to create. We find psychologists raising people’s expectations for happiness in this life to an inordinate level, and then we find them dispensing advice about the mid-life crisis and dying. We find psychologists making a virtue out of self-preoccupation, and then we find them surprised at the increased supply of narcissists. We find psychologists advising the courts that there is no such thing as a bad boy or even a bad adult, and then we find them formulating theories to explain the rise in crime. We find psychologists severing the bonds of family life, and then we find them conducting therapy for broken families.
In another book Kilpatrick says that “what psychology gives with the one hand, it takes away with the other.”
Kerry Koller, when director of the Center for Christian Studies, asked the following question: “Do psychological theories and therapies see life from an angle that Christians can accept?” He pointed out how psychology “has come to take a central position in man’s understanding of himself and the world he lives in.” He then talked about how most psychological theories contradict biblical truth. He contended that “One could even argue that it is precisely because of the use of these therapies in Christian settings that Christian ethical norms have gotten considerably weaker.” He concluded by saying, “If Christians wholeheartedly accept current psychological theories they will probably take on the values of the surrounding society which psychology embodies.” We believe this has already happened.
Two comments from a Christian Booksellers’ Association (CBA) convention speak to this point. A book publisher’s representative says, “It’s one of the most upbeat CBNs I’ve been to. It’s fulfill yourself, do it all, have it all—in a Christian way, of course.” Is it possible to fulfill self, do it all, have it all in a Christian way?
In reference to the CBA convention, one historian author notes that “evangelical Christians are trying to keep their young people by adapting their faith to the forms of the majority culture.” The majority culture is a psychological culture with (to quote a well-known book) “new rules” and is “searching for self-fulfillment in a world turned upside down.”
God’s view of man according to the Bible is not compatible with any psychotherapeutic view of man. Nor is the biblical condition of man accepted or promoted by any of the many brands of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy has attempted to destroy religion where it can and to compromise where it cannot. A supernatural void has resulted, and the need to believe in something has been filled by making a religion out of the ritual of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy has debased and virtually replaced the church’s ministry to troubled individuals. During this time pastors have been devalued and have been intimidated into referring their sheep to professional psychotherapeutic priests. Many people no longer look to pastors and fellow believers for such help; nor do they look to the Bible for spiritual solutions to mental-emotional-behavioral problems.
The cycle of deception is complete. The psychotherapist offers humanity a less demanding, less disciplined, more self-centered substitute for religion: for that is what psychotherapy is; a false solution to mental-emotional-behavioral problems; for that is what the psychological way is; and a subtitute god figure, for that is what the psychotherapist has become. Now deceived people flock to this surrogate religion with its unproved ideas and solutions. They flock to the counterfeit high priest and worship at strange altars. People have fallen for the false image of the psychotherapist priest and for the theology of therapy.
We live in the most ego-enlarged, selfindulged, navel-examined society since the days of Babylon, and the psychological way of dealing with problems of living has been a major source of this self-preoccupation. Unless we seek a spiritual understanding (biblical model of man) and a spiritual solution (biblical methodology) in all matters of life and of ministering to one another, we are in serious danger of “having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof. From such turn away” (2 Tim. 3:5).
 Excerpted from Martin & Deidre Bobgan. PsychoHeresy: The Psychological Seduction of Christianity, Revised % Expanded, Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers, 2012, Chapter 3, “A Way Which Seemeth Right.”
 Darrell Smith, “Booked for Passages,” Eternity, May 1980, p. 29.
 C. P. Dragash, “Criminal Commonplaces,” Chronicles of Culture, May 1985, p. 15.
 David Gelman, “‘Unmarried’ Counseling,” Newsweek, 17 June 1985, p. 78.
 Loriene Chase, “Casebook of Dr. Chase,” Westways, July 1985, p. 63.
 Mary VanderGoot, “The Shingle and the Manse,” The Reformed Journal, September 1983, p. 15.
Ibid., pp. 16-17.
Ibid., p. 17.
 Garth Wood. The Myth of Neurosis. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1986, p. 3.
 Thomas Szasz. Myth of Psychotherapy. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978, p. xxiii.
 Marilyn Thomsen and Archibald D. Hart, “Pastoral Counseling: Who, Whom, How?” Ministry, January 1985, p. 7.
 Hugh Drummond, “Dr. D. Is Mad As Hell,” Mother Jones, December 1979, p. 52.
 Thomsen and Hart, op. cit., p. 8.
 William Kirk Kilpatrick. The Emperor’s New Clothes. Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1985, pp. 129-184.
 Martin and Deidre Bobgan, “Psychotherapeutic Methods of CAPS Members,” Christian Association for Psychological Studies Bulletin 6, No. 1, 1980, p. 13
 Martin and Deidre Bobgan. The Psychological Way/The SpiritualWay. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1979, pp. 118-124.
 Carl Rogers, graduation address, Sonoma State College, quoted by Kilpatrick, op. cit., p. 162.
 Thomsen and Hart, op. cit., p. 10.
 Bernie Zilbergeld, “Psychabuse,” Science 86, June 1986, p. 50.
 Bernie Zilbergeld. The Shrinking of America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1983, p. 163.
 Kenneth Woodward and Janet Huck, “Next, Clerical Malpractice,” Newsweek, 20 May 1985, p. 90.
 David Swift, “Are We Preparing to Fail?” Moody Monthly, September 1984, p. 109.
 Robert Illman, “Confidentiality and the Law,” Presbyterian Journal, 26 December 1984, p. 9.
 “An Interview with Dr. Margaret Thaler Singer,” Spiritual Counterfeits Project Newsletter, Vol. 10, No. 2, March-April 1984, pp. 1, 6-8, 11-12.
 Ben Patterson, “Is God a Psychotherapist?” Christianity Today, 1 March 1985, p. 23.
 William Kirk Kilpatrick. Psychological Seduction. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983, p. 23.
Ibid., p. 31.
 Kilpatrick, The Emperor’s New Clothes, op. cit., p. 12.
 Kerry Koller, “Psychology as a Point of View,” Pastoral Renewal, Vol. 4, No. 2, August 1979, p. 1.
Ibid., p. 10.
Ibid., p. 12.
 Gene Lyons, “Let There Be Books,” Newsweek, 5 August 1985, p. 65A.
 Daniel Yankelovich. New Rules: Searching for Self-Fulfillment in a World Turned Upside Down. New York: Random House, 1981.